Core Curriculum of UK Academy of Chinese Medicine
2014-05-30 14:06:30


Core Curriculum of UK Academy of Chinese Medicine






UK Academy of Chinese Medicine (UKACM) carries out the following core curriculum recommended by The Traditional Chinese Medicine Accreditation Board (TCMAB) of The Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture UK (ATCM) and Middlesex University as the guideline ofminimum requirements for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and acupuncture courses in UKACM.


The TCM and acupuncture courses consist of Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and massage, or a single part of either, at professional licentiate level.


Considering the nature and diversity of the range of TCM and acupuncture studies andthe demand on quality from the profession, the minimum requirementof accredited courses must be of a bachelor degree level or its

equivalent, which is defined by QAA at level 6.


This document has been produced and revised after lengthyconsultation and feedback from Chinese medicine and acupuncture practitioners,teaching institutions including Middlesex University & University of East London , researchers, medical practitioners, patients, andrelevant professional bodies such as ATCM ,Royal Society of Medicine, British Acupuncture Council, I.P.T.I., BRCP, etc.


The current Core Curriculum framework isa unique development arising from years practice of accreditationand teaching/learning practice under the previous edition of the corecurriculum of Middlesex University , which itself was based on the essence of core curriculaobtained from worldwide sources including Hunan University of Chinese Medicine-the partner of our UKACM . It is, therefore, a core curriculum thatensures licentiate standard of education in Chinese medicine and acupuncture at aninternationally recognised level. It also reflects the demand forqualified Chinese medicine and acupuncture practitioners within the UK and EU.


This curriculum emphasises the value of traditional, theoretical anddiagnostic approaches of Chinese medicine and acupuncture . Practitioners must beable to master integrated therapeutic solutions to common clinicalconditions. They must demonstrate proficiency in both professionalpractice and ethical standards, and place the safety of their patientsand the general public at the paramount level.


As programmes of education should be flexible to accommodatestudents from various backgrounds and with different needs, thecurriculum is suitably versatile. It has the scope to provide tailoredalternatives, for instance, fewer modules taking less time than thosedesigned for Chinese herbalists and acupuncturists. It also contains thefundamental requirements needed to assure the successful delivery ofa core curriculum.


General Requirements


The Aim of the Course


The predominant aim of education in Chinese medicine and acupuncture is to produceprofessional Chinese medicine and acupuncture practitioners, including traditionalChinese acupuncturists , herbalists and massage therapists with the confidence andcompetence of independent practice. Graduates from accreditedcourses should possess sufficient knowledge of Chinese medicine andwestern medicine relevant to their professional practice. The graduatesshould have reached the general requirements of ethics and safetystandards set by healthcare professionals. The course should beclinically centred and research informed. The evidence basedpractice and post-registration continuous professional development(CPD) should be facilitated. The synchronized development of bothindividuality and knowledge should be emphasised. The traditionalmerits of Chinese medicine, such as caring, responsibility anddedication plus the modern qualities of humanity,onfidentiality andrespect, should be addressed throughout the whole course.


Length of Course


Based on the structure and demands of the Core Curriculum and the

traditional arrangement of academic semesters in a highereducational setting, the course should be normally at least three yearsof full time study.


The length of part-time courses should be at least 4 years in order toprovide the same teaching hours.


However, correspondence courses are notecommended.


The total teaching/learning requirement is 4200 hours. The theoretical

teaching hours may comprise of contact lectures, group discussions,

laboratory demonstrations and a variety of structured learning.

With regards to courses focused on Acupuncture only, the total

teaching/learning time should be normally at least 3000 hours, and for

herbal medicine only, the total hours should be normally 3200 hours at

least, with no less than two and half years in length.




The entry requirement of the programmes is in line with other higher

education health profession courses. Two ‘A’ levels or equivalent and,

at least, one GCSE, or above, in biology is preferred. English and

mathematics must be at grade “C” or equivalent at GCSE level.


Forcandidates whose first language is not English, the English should reach

a level of 6.5 in IELTS or its equivalent. All candidates shoulddemonstrate their suitability in terms of criminal records andprofessional fitness to practice policy.


Recommended Modules and Teaching

Learning Hours


1 TCM Foundation 800

• History and Philosophy of Chinese Medicine and acupuncture  50

• Physiology of Chinese Medicine 100

• Aetiology and Pathology of Chinese Medicine 100

• Diagnostics of Chinese Medicine 220

• Syndrome Differentiation and Treatment Principles 230

• Classics of Chinese Medicine 100


2 Biomedical Sciences 600

• Human Sciences – Anatomy and Physiology and Nutrition


• Clinical Science: Pathology and Pharmacology 180

• Diagnostics and Treatment Principles 200


3 Professionalism and research 400

• Research 220

• Professional Development 180


4.1 Acupuncture and moxibustion800

• Meridian Theory and Acupuncture Points 250

• Acupuncture and MoxibustionTechniques 250

• Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion300


4.2 Herbal Medicine 900

• Chinese Materia Medica 250

• Herbal Formulary 250

• Clinical Chinese Medicine 400


5 Clinical Practice (Various)

• Supervised Clinical Practice - Acupuncture and Massage 400

• Supervised Clinical Practice - Chinese Herbal Medicine 500

• Supervised Clinical Practice – TCM 700


Total Hours required for Acupuncture and Moxibustioncourse 3000


Total Hours for Chinese Herbal Medicine course 3200

Total Hours for Chinese Medicine course 4200


Teaching/Learning Methods


Teaching methods should reflect the character of each individualmodule, which should be inspiring, versatile, encouraging andreflective. Teaching materials employed should reflect the latestdevelopments in Chinese medicine, with special reference to thedevelopment within the UK. Diversity and current debates should bereflected in the materials. For all modules, there should be at least twoor more key reading materials.


For modules that require laboratory sessions, suitable guidelines or

handbooks should be provided prior to the start of the sessions.




Assessment principle: An appropriate strategy should be developed to

fulfil the purpose of assessment. The assessment should serve three

purposes: measuring the achievement of the students, monitoring their

development, and grading them.The emphasis should be placed on

helping the students to achieve the learning outcome.


All assessment procedures must be transparent and fair. Students

should be fully informed of the assessment schedule in detail in good

time. The marking process should be fair, consistent, and distinguishing.

Feedback should be constructive, helpful and timely.


In line with teaching contents, a variety of assessment procedures

should apply. For all theoretical modules, 50% or more of the final mark

or result should be drawn from written tests or experiment reports.

Continuous, progressive assessment of homework, as well as group

work, should contribute to the final mark of each module where



For every twelve hours of the self-learning element, at least one report

or essay should be submitted to reflect the achievement.


In clinical practice, the total clinical hours must be fulfilled according to

the requirement set up in this document. Part of the clinical assessment

should be made by the supervisor’s constant review of the student’s

report, regularly. A final assessment should be carried out using a

randomly chosen, real case assessment. A panel should be responsible

for conducting this final assessment.


Overall Learning Outcomes


Upon completion of an accredited educational programme of

Chinese medicine, a graduate should meet the following criteria inorder to be accepted as a registered Chinese medicinepractitioner,

Chinese acupuncturist, or Chinese herbalist. He/she should:

(i) Be capable of taking and interpreting a patient's case history.

This should include the presenting and predisposing conditions,

past history, current medical diagnosis and drugs regime, social

and family history;

(ii) Be capable of conducting and interpreting the necessary

diagnostic procedures including pulse reading, tongue

examination and body palpation. The practitioner should have

sufficient knowledge of anatomy, physiology, pathology and

clinical medicine in order to carry out these procedures safely

and interpret them competently;

(iii) Be capable of making an appropriate disease-diagnosis and

syndrome-differentiation diagnosis based upon Chinese medical



(iv) Be aware of the limit of competence. In the context of medical

science, the practitioner should be able to recognise clinical

situations where it would not be adequate to use only Chinese

medicine methods. In this situation, the practitioner should be

able to provide suitable suggestions to assist the patient in

seeking appropriate medical care;

(v) Be capable of making a treatment plan including the treatment

principles, methods and therapeutic choice;

(vi) Where applicable, have appropriate practical skills to perform

acupuncture treatment, and prescribe and dispense Chinese

herbal medicine safely and legally. Be capable of dealing with

unexpected incidents;

(vii) Be capable of communicating to patients in a clear and

professional manner; to facilitate the patients understanding of

the disease, treatment plan and prognosis while being cognisant

of the patient's own needs;

(viii) Based on knowledge of Chinese medicine, be able to provide

lifestyle advice;

(ix) Be able to monitor the patient’s progress and reaction to the

treatment and, if necessary, re-evaluate the diagnosis and

treatment plan;

(x) Be able to systematically and accurately record all relevant

information and details obtained. This should include a detailed

treatment plan at every session. Be able to maintain and store

these records for future reference in compliance with relevant

legal requirements;

(xi) Be able to evaluate any ethical considerations which might

affect the practitioner-patient relationship regarding age,

gender, race, confidentiality and financial position. Be aware of

the possible need to seek help from other professional bodies or

other related sources;

(xii) Be fully conversant with all the contraindications of acupuncture

and herbal medicines. Be aware of the rare, but potentially

serious adverse effects of using herbal medicines (Chinese

acupuncturists excluded). Be familiar with the signs and

symptoms of common adverse effects. Be familiar with the

Yellow Card system for reporting possible sides effect of herbal

medicine, where applicable;

(xiii) Comply with the professional code of ethics and practice and

keep abreast of events by continuing to attend programmes of

professional development. Be familiar with CPD requirements of

professional bodies and any future regulator;

(xiv) Be committed to promote Chinese medicine in healthcare; be

aware of the regulations in advertising related to healthcare and

Chinese medicine.



Recommended Structure of Modules


1. History and Philosophy of Chinese Medicine and acupuncture

Minimum hours: 50


On completion of this module, the student should be able to


a. the cultural roots of Chinese medicine and acupuncture

b. the philosophic foundation of Chinese medicine and acupuncture

c. the general view of health and life in Chinese medicine and acupuncture


Syllabus Content:

a. Major stages and schools in the ancient development of

Chinese medicine and acupuncture

b. Modern development of Chinese medicine and acupuncture

c. Yin and Yang theory

d. Five elements theory

e. Qi theory - concept of Qi, origin of Qi, Yuan-Qi, the origin of

the world

f. Syndrome pattern differentiation: the unique system for

recognising diseases

g. Holism: human-heaven relationship, the unity of spirit and

body, the unity of internal and external


Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars


2. Physiology of Chinese Medicine and acupuncture

Minimum hours: 100


On completion of this module, the student should be able to


a. the vital materials in the body

b. the functions of internal organs in Chinese medicine

c. the functions and structure of the meridian system


Syllabus Content:

a. Vital materials of human body:

Qi: Primary Qi (yuan Qi), defensive Qi, Ying Qi, Pectoral Qi

(zong Qi)


Body fluid

Yang-Qi and Yin-Qi


Relations between Qi and blood

b. Viscera:

Zang viscera—heart, lungs, spleen, liver, kidney

Fu viscera—Stomach, small intestine, large intestine,

gallbladder, urinary bladder, San-jiao

Extra viscera

c. External organs:

Skin, vessels, tendons, bone, flesh, muscles

Orifices—eyes, ears, nose, mouth, throat, anus, uterus, and


d. Meridian system:

Twelve regular meridians

Eight extra meridians

e. Life activities:

Vitality (shen)

Breath, sleep, food digestion, fluid distribution

f. Life cycle:


Male cycle

Female cycle


Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars.


3. Aetiology and Pathology of Chinese Medicine

Minimum hours: 100


On completion of this module, the student should be able


a. Causes of disease in different categories

b. Pathogenic mechanism in Chinese medicine

c. Basic pathology in Chinese medicine


Syllabus Content:

a. Aetiology:

Exogenous factors:

Six climatic factors—wind, cold, summer-heat, dampness,

dryness, fire

Epidemic factors

Endogenous factors: seven emotions

Other factors:

Dietary factors

Exertion and stalling

Sexual factor

Physical injury

Biological attack - insect, parasite, animal bite, etc

b. Pathogenic mechanism:

Genuine Qi and pathogenic Qi

Overwhelming of pathogenic Qi

Depletion of genuine Qi inviting attack

Pathogenic Qi taking advantage of weak Qi

Latent pathogens

Chronic combat between genuine Qi and pathogenic Qi

c. Pathology:

Imbalance of Yin and Yang

Impairing of Qi or/blood

Impairing of visceral function

d. Death:

Separation of Yin and Yang


Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars


4. Human Sciences: Anatomy and Physiology

Minimum hours: 220


On completion of this module, the student will be able to:

a. Understand the structure of human body clearly

b. Know basic cytology

c. Know tissues and their functions

d. Understand systemic functions

e. Understand the biochemistry base for nutrition theory


Syllabus Content:

a. Gross Anatomy:

Skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal,

urinary, reproductive, endocrinal, neurological and

immune systems

b. Cytology:

Structure and function of cells and their components

Replication of cells

c. Histology:

Structure and function of tissues: epithelium, connective

tissues and membranes

d. Physiology:

Circulation, respiration, digestion, neurohumoral regulation,

and immunity

Growth, development and reproduction

e. Biochemistry and nutrition

Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, , minerals and fibre


Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars,

laboratory session


5. Meridian and Acupuncture Points

Minimum hours: 250


On completion of this module, the student will be able to


a. The meridian system and its circulation, distribution and


b. The structure of 12 regular meridians and Ren and Du



c. Master common points on the above 14 meridians by

location and action

d. Special point categories

e. Common extra points


Syllabus Content:

a. Meridian system

b. Twelve regular meridians - the structure and functions

c. Eight extra meridians

d. Major acupuncture points on 14 meridians (around 180 on 12

regular meridians, Du Meridian and Ren Meridian)

Location and action of the major points, contra-indications of

the points

e. Special points:

Five–shu points; Eight converging points; Eight confluent points

Back-shu points; Front-mu points

f. Commonly used extra-points: location and action

g. Ear-acupuncture points: Chinese system


Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars,

laboratory sessions, group practical session (point-location), and

clinical observation


6. Chinese Medicine Diagnostics

Minimum hours: 220


On completion of this module, the student will be able to

a. Understand the principles guiding the diagnosis processes

b. Apply tongue-observation

c. Apply pulse-taking

d. Discuss the method of enquiring into common symptoms

e. Discuss the clinical implication of the common symptoms


Syllabus Content:

a. General principles guiding the diagnosis

b. Observation:

Vitality, Colour, Shape, and movement

Face, body, movement

Tongue observation

c. Interrogation/questioning:

Chief complaint

General information/systematic questioning

Past medical history and western medicine diagnosis

Present medication

d. Palpation

Touching—temperature, moisture, sensation

Abdominal palpation

Pulse taking

Point palpation

e. Smelling and listening

f. Case record

g. Understanding bio-medical findings

h. Red flags - recognizing symptoms requiring referrals - cancer,

contagious disease, serious conditions


Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars,

group practical sessions, and clinical observation


7. Clinical Science—Pathology and


Minimum hours: 180


On completion of this module, the student will be able to

a. Discuss pathogenic factors

b. Describe basic biochemical-physiological parameters

underlying the human response to diseases

c. Understand common pathological process

d. Understand basic drug actions

e. Differentiate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics


Syllabus Content:

a. Aetiology

b. Biomedical disease concept, and biomedicalpharmacological

parameters associated with them as well as

to link disease patterns

c. Local and general response: inflammation, shock, fever, stress

d. Disturbance of immune function, autoimmune and immune


e. Cancers

f. Genetic disorders

g. Degenerative disorders (including aging related disorders)

h. Infections

i. Principles of drug actions

j. Principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

k. Commonly prescribed medicines


Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars


8. Chinese Materia Medica

Minimum hours: 250


On completion of this module, the student will be able to:

a. Understand the nature and property of herbs

b. Apply 150 important herbs in practice

c. Be aware of banned and restricted herbs


Syllabus Content:

a. General knowledge of Chinese herbal medicine

b. Nature and property of Chinese herbs

Four Qi, Five flavours, Ascending and descending, sinking and


Meridian orientation

c. Combination of herbs

d. Dosage

e. Identification and storage

f. Primary preparation of herbs

g. Common Herbs for

o Relieving the exterior

o Clearing heat

o Purgatives

o Clearing dampness (resolving and draining dampness)

o Expelling wind and dampness

o Resolving phlegm and soothing coughs and asthma

o Regulating Qi

o Invigorating blood

o Stopping bleeding

o Warming the interior

o Tonifying Qi

o Tonifying Yang

o Tonifying blood

o Tonifying Yin

o Calming liver and suppressing wind

o Tranquillizing the mind

o Resolving food retention

o Astringing and consolidating


Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars,

dispensary practical session, and clinical observation


9. Chinese Herbal Formulary

Minimum hours: 250


On completion of this module, the student will be able to:

a. Analyse the structure of formulae

b. Discuss herbal medicine formulation

c. Apply 100 common formulae in practice

d. Discuss regulation issues in Chinese medicine


Syllabus Content:

a. Classification of formulae

b. Structure of herbal formulae

c. Formulation and administration

d. Modification of formulae

e. Common formulae:

o Relieving exterior

o Clearing heat

o Purgative

o Harmonising

o Expelling dampness

o Expelling wind and dampness

o Resolving phlegm and soothing coughs and asthma

o Regulating Qi

o Invigorating blood

o Stopping bleeding

o Warming the interior

o Tonifying

o Moistening

o Suppressing wind

o Tranquilizing the mind

o Resolving food retention

o Astringing and consolidating


Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars,

herbal dispensary training sessions, and clinical observation


10. Syndrome Differentiation and Treatment


Minimum hours: 230


On completion of this module, the student will be able to:

a. Discuss the principles of Chinese diagnosis and treatment

b. Apply the Zang-fu syndrome pattern system

c. Debate commonly used syndrome differentiation

d. Understand therapeutic techniques in Chinese medicine

e. Develop treatment plans

f. Prescribe acupuncture points and/or herbal medicines



Syllabus Content:

a. Introduction to syndrome pattern systems

b. Zang-Fu syndrome pattern system

c. Other syndrome pattern systems

o Eight principle syndromes

o Wei-Qi-Ying-Xue syndromes

o Six meridian syndromes

o Meridian syndrome

o Sanjiao syndromes

o Qi-Xue-Jin-Ye syndromes

d. Treatment principles:

o Individualised treatment plan

o Treatment and prevention

o Supporting Genuine Qi and/or expelling pathogenic Qi

o Branch and root

o Straightforward treating or paradoxical treating

e. The Eight Treatment Methods:

o Sweating

o Vomiting

o Purging

o Harmonising

o Warming

o Clearing

o Tonifying

o Reducing

f. Treatment plan:

o Combining treatment of both syndrome and disease

o Treating acute diseases

o Treating chronic diseases in different stages

o Treating latent disease

o Rehabilitation

g. Therapeutic choice, indications of:

o Herbal medicine

Internally administrated herbs

Externally applied herbs

o Acupuncture

o Moxibustion

o Cupping

o Tuina

o Qigong and Taiji

h. Selection of herbal formulae and prescriptions

i. Selection of acupuncture points


Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars, and

clinical observation


11. Acupuncture and MoxibustionTechniques

Minimum hours: 250


On completion of this module, the student will be able to:

a. Debate safe practice issues

b. Manipulate needles

c. Apply moxibustion, cupping, ear-acupuncture, electroacupuncture

Syllabus content

a. Clinic setting and preparation

b. Needling skills

Needle selection, insertion, manipulation, retention and

withdrawal; tonifying and reducing techniques, safe disposal

of used needles

c. Moxibustion:

Materials and equipment

Safe application of moxibustion

Moxibustion techniques

d. Cupping

Materials and equipment

Safe practice of cupping

Cupping techniques

e. Ear acupuncture

f. Electro-acupuncture

g. Dealing with incidence


Teaching methods:

Mainly practical sessions, including demonstration, supervised

practice, group practice, group exercises, and classroom lectures


12. Applied Clinical Science (Diagnostics and

Treatment Principles)

Minimum hours: 200


On completion of this module, the student will be able to


a. Diagnostic principles of western medicine

b. Classification of diseases in western medicine

c. Master some common clinical conditions - diagnosis and

treatment in western medicine

d. Clinical character of some therapies and drugs

e. Know the limitations of Chinese medicine in certain conditions

Syllabus Content:

a. Diagnostics: physical examination, common laboratory tests,

ECG, X-rays, ultrasound scan, CT-scan, MRI scan, endoscopic

examination, genetic testing.

b. Common diseases/disorders studies:

o musculo-skeletal

o cardiovascular

o respiratory

o gastrointestinal

o urinary

o neurological

o endocrine and metabolic

o blood and lymphatic

o gynaecological

o skin problems

o problems of the eye, ear, nose and throat

c. Counselling and communication skills

d. Epidemiological evidence of disease, incidence of disease,

risk evaluation, prognosis

e. Hormone replacement

f. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy

Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars, and

clinical observation


13. Clinical Chinese Medicine

Minimum hours: 400


On completion of this module, the student will be able to:

a. Make diagnosis and treatment plan for common conditions

b. Apply the diagnosis and treatment of major gynaecological


c. Understand common obstetrical conditions

d. Understand common paediatric diseases

e. Apply to major skin diseases

Syllabus Content:

a. The division of clinical practice

b. Common conditions in various systems

c. Psychological and emotional conditions

d. Supportive oncology

e. Addicts and withdrawal syndromes

f. Common gynaecological conditions

g. Male problems

h. Common obstetric conditions

i. Common paediatric conditions

j. Common skin conditions


Teaching method

Lectures, group work, clinical observation, case reports and



14. Research Module

Minimum hours: 220


On completion of this module, the student will be able to:

a. Understand and appreciate research findings in Chinese


b. Discuss various research methods

c. Debate clinical trial methods and their significance in Chinese


d. Apply research findings as evidence for practice

e. Design a research project


Syllabus Content:

a. Research methods in Chinese medicine

b. Qualitative and quantitative methods

c. Data collection and processing

d. Evaluation of research reports

e. Research project design

Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work


15. Classics of Chinese Medicine

Minimum hours: 100


On completion of this module, the student will be able to:

a. Criticize how and why ancient TCM practitioners

created certain principles of treatment for common


b. Critically appraise the classical theories of seasonal


c. Compare present conditions against the development

of ancient practitioners' ideas and their scientific basis.

d. Understand the cultural root of Chinese medicine

e. Understand the philosophy guiding Chinese medicine

f. Understand the influence of Daoism and Confucianism

on Chinese medicine

g. Understand the source and meaning of some famous

opinions from the classic texts

Syllabus Content:

a. Yi-Jing (Law of Chang)

b. Internal Classic (Huang Di Nei Jing)

c. Cold-Attack Diseases (Shang Han Lun)

d. Golden Chamber Synopsis (Jing Gui Yao Lue)

e. Febrile Disease Discussed in Detail (Wen Bing Tiao Bian)

f. Confucianism and its influence on Chinese medicine

g. Daoism and its influence on Chinese medicine


Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars


16.Professional Development (business, ethics,

relative law)

Minimum hours: 180


On completion of this module, the student will be able to


a. The regulations of Chinese medicine practice in UK

b. The regulations on promotion of Chinese medicine practice

c. Apply the basic management skills in operating a Chinese

medicine practice

d. The ethical considerations in practice, the patient’s rights, the

protection of the patient’s personal information

Syllabus Content:

a. Patient-practitioner relationship

b. Confidentiality and personal data protection

c. Referral and professional networking

d. Continual professional development (CPD)

e. Professionalism and misconduct

f. Informed consent

g. Legal situation of Chinese medicine

h. Business issues: small business/self-employment management,

taxation, accounts and bookkeeping

i. Health and safety regulations related to the practice of

Chinese medicine

j. Adverting regulations related to Chinese medicine

k. Insurance

l. Medical sociology: ethnicity, gender, family, stigma

m. Structure and funding of NHS

Teaching method

Lectures, group discussion, group work, student-led seminars


17. Clinical Acupuncture&Moxibustion

Minimum hours: 300

Outcomes: On completion of this module, the student will be able to:

a. Apply the acupuncture treatment to common conditions

b. Formulate a comprehensive health management plan for

common conditions, integrating nutrition and lifestyle into

acupuncture practice

c. Apply acupuncture &moxibustion in preventative and constitutional


d. Follow up the treatment and make a judgement of the

treatment result


Syllabus Content:

a. Common conditions in various systems

b. Psychological and emotional conditions

c. Supportive oncology

d. Addicts and withdrawal syndromes

e. Common gynaecological conditions

f. Male problems

g. Common obstetric conditions

h. Common skin conditions

Teaching method

Lectures, group work, clinical observation, case reports and



18. Supervised Clinical Practice

Minimum hours: 700

(Acupuncture and massage course 400, Chinese herbal medicine course 500)


On completion of this module, the student will be able to

a. Complete a whole consultation and treatment session in

Chinese medicine/acupuncture/herbal medicine practice


b. Apply a Chinese medicine-lead and integrated approach to

help patients in clinical practice

c. Provide patients with suggestions relating to his/her own diet,

lifestyle, etc

d. Practise safely

e. Start own independent practice

f. Demonstrate experience in different clinical fields__

be completed in an academic year without interruption, and at the

final stage, the student must be given an opportunity to practice

individually under supervision for the development of her/his


Only practice in direct proximity to a patient should be included in

assessing the total clinical hours. During the internship, a student should

follow at least 3 supervisors to learn different clinical styles. The

teaching institute has a duty to make sure that the student in the

clinical practice stage should spend at least half of the total hours in a

general clinical setting, not limited to a specialised area, i.e., pain

clinic, or IVF assistant, to make sure that the student is developing

appropriate all-around experience.

At the beginning of the internship, the students should be closely

supervised. While progressing, the students are encouraged to act with

more initiative and less dependence upon supervisors. Intervention

from supervisors should be gradually reduced and finally withdrawn by

the end of a normal schedule. Before finishing clinical practice, a

student must practice independently for at least 6 sessions in order to

be ready for practice assessment.

Case discussion is the most useful method after supervised clinical

practice. In addition, group discussion/peer review/group case

analysis should be organized by the chief/principal supervisor. Case

studies should be used as a main measure to monitor the progress of

the students in competence.

Reflective learning should play a key role in personal development

during this stage. All students should produce reflective reports, in the

form of learning journals/reflective logs/clinical diaries , and make

action plans for further development/learning. The reflective files

should be checked by the supervisors regularly, and be included in thethe

module assessment.


Suggested non-Core Element of Teaching



• General Study of Chinese Acupuncture (Chinese Herbal Course


• General Knowledge of Chinese Herbs (Chinese Acupuncture and Massage

Course Only)

• Study of Other Complimentary Medicine/Therapies

• Chinese Language

• Variation of Chinese Medicine - Kampo and Korean Medicine

• Time Acupuncture and Time Medicine

• Modern Research of Acupuncture and Massage

• Auricular Acupuncture

• Taiji and Qigong Exercises

• Modern Research on Herbs

• Regulation of Chinese medicine outside UK

• Research into Ancient Documents

• Scientific or Western Acupuncture

Rehabilitation—integrated Chinese and Western Approach

• Male and Female Sexual Problems